Decarbonisation Technology - November 2023 Issue


Mineral free biomass




MinFree Feed preparation

Bio-TCat Reactor

Separation / hydrotreatment

Figure 4 Bio-TCat process to produce renewable biofuels and bio-based chemicals as alternatives to petro-based products (Anellotech, 2023)

technology is now ready for commercialisation. Futurol and Jetanol: from enzymatic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass and catalytic conversion to advanced biofuels Today, the main substitute for fossil gasoline is bio-ethanol produced from first-generation food crops (sugar cane, sugar beet, and starchy crops) via the fermentation of sugars to ethanol. In the EU, the updated Renewable Energy Directive (RED II) capped the use of first- generation biofuels for road and rail transport at 7%, with a reduction to 3.8% by 2030. At the same time, RED II introduced targets to increase the use of advanced biofuels to at least 6.8% by 2030. Some new targets have been proposed at the European Commission level, and an awaited version III of the RED should be voted on and agreed before the end of 2023. Futurol technology, developed by Procethol

partners) produces advanced bio-ethanol from lignocellulosic residues (for example, wood chips, straw from cereal crops, bagasses, rice straw, and bamboo). As shown in Figure 5 , the Futurol process involves four steps u Biomass pretreatment: Lignocellulosic biomass is broken down into three major components: cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Hemicellulose is then converted into monomeric sugars. v Biocatalysts production: Enzymes as well as yeasts are produced on-site for economical reasons, avoiding external supplies. w Hydrolysis and fermentation: The enzymes are used for enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose into sugar monomers and, simultaneously, the fermentation of these sugars into ethanol by yeasts. x Products recovery: Fermented mash from the hydrolysis and fermentation step is treated to separate and recover the different products:

2G, a company composed of different partners (R&D, industrial, and financial

2 Biocatalysts production



4 Products

3 Hydrolysis & fermentation

Pretreatment 1



Lignin CO

Figure 5 Axens Futurol technology for bio-ethanol production


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