Decarbonisation Technology - November 2023 Issue

CO lean solvent

Gas treated



Up to 5 barg

Lean solvent


CO rich solvent



Flue gas

Rich solvent

Lean solvent

Figure 6 Axens carbon capture technology DMX process scheme and demonstration plant

fuel-grade ethanol, lignin, clarified stillage, and CO₂. Captured CO 2 and renewable hydrogen for synthetic fuels u DMX: Capturing CO₂ with advanced demixing solvent Axens has a strong track record in the application of pre- and post-combustion carbon capture technologies for a range of industrial flue gases (steam methane reforming, naphtha cracking, steel and cement manufacture, power plants and waste incinerators). The DMX CO₂ capture absorption process (see Figure 6 ) uses a solvent that reduces the energy intensity for carbon capture by nearly 30% compared with the industry standard MEA (monoethanolamine). A DMX demonstration plant is currently in operation at the ArcelorMittal Steel mill plant in Dunkirk, with a process to be commercialised in the coming months. v Reverse water gas shift: Gasel: a complete integrated suite of technologies E-fuels are classified as synthetic fuels (if the

CO₂ is biogenic or from direct air capture) or recycled carbon fuels (if the CO₂ comes from fossil origin) which use captured CO2 and transformed into carbon monoxide via a reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction (see Figure 7 ). It is then mixed with hydrogen from the electrolysis of water using renewable electricity to make a syngas. The syngas is then processed into an Axens Gasel Fischer-Tropsch process used to synthesise longer chain hydrocarbons, followed by hydrocracking/isomerisation to produce fuels with a suitable boiling range for e-kerosene and e-diesels. This process produces e-kerosene that qualifies as synthetic aviation fuel under the new ReFuelEU regulation, as well as paraffinic naphtha. Alternatively, the syngas can be combined with hydrogen for the production of e-methanol with existing processes and then combined with methanol-to-olefin technology and olefin-to-jet (Jetanol) technology. Conclusion The challenges ahead are to rapidly expand the availability and to improve the economics


G asel


Carbon capture

Reverse water gas shift

Fisher-Tropsch Synthesis unit

Upgrading unit






Figure 7 E-fuels: from CO₂ and H₂ to low-carbon fuels


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