Decarbonisation Technology - November 2023 Issue

Raw biomass

Torreed biomass

Raw syngas

Clean syngas













FT & upgrading 4



Figure 3 BioTfueL process from biomass to renewable fuels

first-generation biofuels and concerns about the availability of second-generation biofuels, such as used cooking oil, animal fats, and low indirect land use change (ILUC) crops. Elsewhere, the US have a different approach to calculating carbon intensity, resulting in continued interest and investments. In India, jatropha is gaining interest as an oil crop that can be grown on marginal land, which presents a low ILUC risk.  Solid biomass Lignocellulosic residues from forestry and agriculture are favoured biomass feedstocks that do not compete with food production. These can be converted to fuels using thermal (gasification or pyrolysis) or biological processes. BioTfueL: biomass gasification with Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to aviation jet Axens worked since 2010 as a member of the Bionext partnership (Avril, Axens, CEA, IFPEN, thyssenkrupp Industrial Solutions, and TotalEnergies), with funding from the French Government and the Hauts-de-France region to develop the BioTfueL technology for the production of SAF for aviation from biomass residues. Paraffinic naphtha is also produced and can be used in a steam cracker, the entry gate to the plastic world and its need to reduce fossil usage.

BioTfueL (see Figure 3 ) is a four-step process: torrefaction of biomass, gasification to produce syngas, syngas conditioning (cleaning, acid gas removal, and purification), and then Fischer- Tropsch synthesis to convert the syngas into advanced bio-jet. Following success with the demonstration units in France, this technology is now ready for commercialisation with a first licence sold to Elyse Energy for a project in the South of France. The BioTfueL process is flexible and can be used to produce kerosene for SAF as well as naphtha to be used in steam crackers for the plastic industry. Bio-TCat flash pyrolysis Axens has partnered with Anellotech, which has developed a fast pyrolysis process to produce bio-based aromatics, including benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) and paraxylene, to offer a competitive decarbonisation pathway for the production of polyesters, PET, and other chemicals. Bio-TCat (see Figure 4 ) is a three-step process: a feed pretreatment section (MinFree) which removes minerals in the feed; a one- step reaction section (biomass-to-aromatics conversion through the thermocatalytic process); and a section for upgrading and separation of the aromatic mix obtained. Following success with the demonstration units in the US, this


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