Decarbonisation Technology May 2022 Issue

wood industry residues) via a thermochemical pathway. This technology enables access to a wide range of biomass and positions itself as a sustainable alternative to vegetable oil and food-based biofuels and is the only technology that offers the complete BTL chain backed by one licensor • Pretreatment : biomass is conditioned with drying and torrefaction. These steps homogenise feedstock quality, facilitate grinding, and increase storage stability and biomass energy density. Flexible process conditions allow adjustments due to changes in biomass quality and supply strategy • Gasification : the applied Uhde entrained-flow gasification process with direct quench (PDQ) is a high pressure and high temperature partial oxidation converting carbonaceous material into tar-free syngas • Syngas conditioning : syngas is conditioned to FT requirement by adjusting the H₂/CO ratio via a water gas shift reaction, followed by acid gas removal and a final purification

• FT synthesis and upgrading : see the description of Gasel technology hereabove. Ethanol to Jet pathway Ethanol to Jet (ETJ) is the process by which 1G or advanced bioethanol (2G) is converted to SAF via different steps: • Dehydration : first, polymer-grade ethylene is produced by ethanol dehydration (Atol) • Dimerisation : the ethylene is then oligomerised at close to ambient temperature with a high selectivity towards butenes, utilising a liquid phase, homogeneous Ziegler-type catalytic system based upon a transition metal derivative, nickel, activated by an alkylaluminium reduction compound. The catalytic system is called homogeneous because the reactants, the products, and the catalysts form a single liquid phase (Dimersol) • Oligomerisation : the produced butenes and hexenes are converted into SAF via heterogeneous oligomerisation (Polynaphtha), utilising a robust, environmentally friendly and regenerable catalyst, which ensures long cycles and long catalyst life • Upgrading : a last step of hydrogenation is necessary to reduce the olefin content of the product to fulfil ASTM specifications for the final products. This differentiating technology bundle approach utilises commercially proven processes with over 100 homogeneous and heterogeneous reference units. Futurol: enzymatic conversion pathway Futurol converts lignocellulosic biomass from various origins into cellulosic ethanol (advanced bioethanol, see Figure 4 ). This cellulosic ethanol can then be converted to SAF with the Alcohol to Jet (ATJ) process described above. • Pretreatment: An energy-efficient, single- train, continuous technology was selected and optimised for converting biomass feedstock such as energy crops, agricultural, and wood residues to a standardised pretreated substrate, highly digestible, and with low moisture. High hemicellulose conversion is attained while product degradation is minimised • Biocatalysts production : inhibitors-resistant tailor-made biocatalysts (enzymes and yeasts) were designed, adapted, and improved to


Forest and agriculture residues, straws and byproducts, dedicated biomass


Pretreated biomass


Biocatalysts production

Hydrolysis and fermentation, SSCF 3




Biobased fuels

Products recovery 4

Enzymes Yeasts C sugar C sugar


Hemicellulose Cellulose Lignin Ethanol

Energy and process integration

Lignin and stillage

Figure 4 Enzymatic conversion pathway for ethanol production


Powered by