2 Oligomeri s ation
Lignocellulosic b iomass
Any e thanol source
Any Bio- o le f ins
Figure 5 Alcohol to Jet pathway
Takeaways SAF will be an essential lever in the near future to decarbonise the aviation sector, along with increased aircraft efficiency and behavioural adaptations. Consensus forecasts predict exponential growth in SAF capacity to meet regulatory and market-driven demand. As previously discussed, many different technologies and pathways are now available to produce SAF, and Axens is positioned to bring de-risked technologies to three primary pathways (HEFA, ATJ, and biomass to liquids via gasification and Fischer-Tropsch). Each pathway has distinct regional, feedstock-specific economies of scale and techno-economic advantages, with each one having a role to play depending on the individual project context. Meeting the demands of the aviation sector will likely require the implementation of multiple project pathways, including those listed here. The common threads running through these technologies are flexibility, reliability, and the realisation of decades of technology development, demonstrating that Axens is rising to meet the challenges of scaling up SAF capacity in the coming years. 1 BioTfuel Project partners are Avril, Axens, CEA, Total, IFP Energies nouvelles, and ThyssenKrupp Industrial Solutions. Atol, BioTfueL, Gasel, Futurol, and Vegan are trademarks of Axens.
optimise process performances. Futurol offers on-site enzyme production and yeast propagation using lignocellulosic substrate, which strongly contributes to ethanol production cost reduction • Hydrolysis and fermentation : enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass and co-fermentation of C₅ and C 6 sugars take place simultaneously in the same vessel (‘one-pot’ process). This process configuration capitalises on a synergy between biocatalysts and allows for both Capex and Opex minimisation while achieving high ethanol yield through full conversion of C 5 and C 6 sugars • Products recovery : state of the art distillation and dehydration allow recovery of advanced bioethanol suitable for biofuel applications or further processing in chemical production. Lignin and stillage are recovered and routed to energy production while water is recycled. Combination of enzymatic conversion + Alcohol to Jet pathways Combining Futurol and ATJ processes (see Figure 5 ) provides the possibility of producing ultra-low CI – or even carbon-neutral, advanced SAF from lignocellulosic biomass. This chain has many advantages, including: A two-stage investment plan to either produce advanced bioethanol first (with Futurol), then subsequently build an ATJ block To produce SAF from low-CI 1G ethanol (with ATJ), then decarbonise the SAF over time with the introduction of advanced bioethanol To utilise a ‘hub and spoke’ approach by building multiple small Futurol plants near feedstock sources that all feed a centralised ATJ plant that captures economies of scale. These advantages make the ATJ pathway unique in today’s continuously evolving environment.
Carine Leclercq Carine.LECLERCQ@axens.net Dave Schwalje David.SCHWALJE@axens.net Yvon Bernard Yvon.BERNARD@axens.net
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