Decarbonisation Technology May 2022 Issue

V egan HVO

Lipids Fats, veg oils, UCO, etc.

BioTfuel Gasication + FT

Lignocellulosic biomass Wood residue, agriculture residue, energy crops

Gasel Fischer - Tropsch + upgrading

Sustainable aviation fuel

ATJ Alcohol to J et

Futurol 2G enzymatic conversion

2G ethanol

Green H, carbon capture, waste, low-Cl, inedible starches and sugars

1G/2G alcohol

Figure 2 Main sustainable aviation fuel pathways

effectively address environmental regulations, sustainability targets, and secure energy diversification with drop-in premium-quality products. Vegan technology includes: • A hydrotreatment (HDT) section to deoxygenate and remove contaminants from renewable lipids in the presence of hydrogen to produce linear paraffins • A hydroisomerisation (HDI) section to upgrade the linear paraffins produced in the previous step into real drop-in middle distillate biofuels. The hydroisomerisation section can be tuned to produce different grades of jet fuel or diesel fuel, according to market needs, with the ability to produce anywhere from 0 to 100% of the middle distillate product as SAF. The HEFA pathway can be a low investment solution as it offers the possibility to revamp existing hydrotreatment units and turn them into HEFA units to produce SAF. Gasel: Fischer-Tropsch (FT) pathway Gasel technology converts synthesis gas (H₂+CO) from various origins – biomass, captured carbon oxides – into a flexible slate of ultra-clean liquid fuels (XTL), including SAF. This FT route is commonly accepted as

one of the most promising mid-term solutions for the production of alternative fuels and petrochemicals, including biomass-to-liquids (BTL) and efuels: • Syngas purification : if required, this step aims at ensuring a syngas purity suitable for the FT catalyst. It can treat syngas from any conventional acid gas removal process • FT synthesis : the reaction takes place in a three-phase slurry bubble column (SBC) reactor where syngas is brought into contact with the solid FT catalyst to produce long-chained liquid hydrocarbons. The liquid products are recovered in L/S and G/L separators and sent to the upgrading section • FT product upgrading : the raw FT liquid product is stabilised, hydrotreated (olefins and oxygenates), hydrocracked, and isomerised. The fully converted product is then separated, and it offers flexibility towards different production modes (max kerosene or max middle distillates/ diesel with a small production of naphtha). BioTfueL 1: gasification pathway BioTfueL technology unlocks SAF and advanced biofuels production from energy crops, agricultural, and forestry residues (including

Raw biomass

Torreed biomass

Raw syngas CO

Clean syngas








Figure 3 Gasification pathway


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