Decarbonisation Technology - February 2023


Renewable electricity


FT fuels


e-Jet e-Diesel e-Naphtha



FT synthesis




Atmosphere/ point source

Carbon capture

Figure 2 How the G2L e-Fuels solution works

With innovative technologies and cutting-edge knowledge enabling the upgrading of advanced feed- stocks, fuel production is at the centre of the global transition Further, we have G2L e-Fuels, which allows e-Fuels to be produced from green hydrogen (stemming from renewable electricity and electrolysis) and CO₂ via carbon capture. By hardware, and comes with a comprehensive range of proprietary catalysts for renewable fuel production. Gasified waste could be an alternative source of choice, in which a producer takes the synthetic- and gas-based route with G2L Biofuels (Gas-to-Liquid). This commercially proven technology utilises Topsoe’s hydroprocessing technologies and Sasol’s LTFT (low temperature Fischer-Tropsch) technology to produce Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (FT-SPK) (see Figure 1 ). combining synthesis gas, Fischer-Tropsch and hydroprocessing technologies, the G2L e-Fuels solution efficiently produces FT-SPK/e-Jet and green naphtha (see Figure 2 ). This technology results in an overall carbon efficiency of 95%+. Feedstock availability can cause turbulence SAF can be produced from various renewable feedstocks, including vegetable oils, waste oils and fats, solid biogenic waste, industrial flue gases, CO₂, renewable electricity, and water. As the market for and production of SAF increases, so will the need for suitable

feedstocks. There are many reasons for this, not least because other segments and industries are pursuing the same feedstocks for different purposes, like road transport, marine fuel, and petrochemicals. For example, producing SAF from waste oils is the most technically mature SAF conversion pathway. However, waste oils are highly resource-constrained and are already largely consumed by the road sector. This could become a seriously limiting factor in our journey to decarbonising aviation. But what does this have to do with legislation? The use of feedstocks, in particular first- generation renewable feedstocks, is highly regulated in some parts of the world, like the EU, with direct implications for the biofuel production required to supply mandated volumes. The International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) estimates that there is a resource base to meet approximately 5.5% of the EU’s projected 2030 jet fuel demand using advanced SAF – SAF that could be made from solid biomass waste, rotational crops, or recycled carbon. However, if the EU adopts weaker incentives, they estimate a maximum advanced SAF deployment of only 1.9% of the projected 2030 EU jet fuel demand. Regardless, SAF capacity derived from first- and second-generation feedstocks will not be enough to help the whole world fly sustainably. Inbound: advanced feedstocks But a third generation of feedstocks is coming: advanced solid waste feedstocks that can be derived from solid biomass waste, rotational crops, and recycled carbon. Processes for working with solid waste feedstocks naturally differ from those applied to first- and second-generation feedstocks –


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