(for example, to ethanol). The bio feedstock that is most ample in supply is lig- nocellulosic material (such as forestry/agricultural waste). However, conversion of lignocellulosic feed to higher value fuels or chemicals requires more complex technologies than hydrotreater coprocessing. Gas injector (O xymix I njector) Signals to DCS
Droplet size, The Oxymix Injector has already been successfully deployed under various operational conditions in over 100 oxygen enrichment pro- jects w rl wide. Multiple reference projects also attest to the safety, effi - ciency and climate mitigation bene- fits of enrichment technology in the petrochemical industry. kg/h-lb/h μm 53 Droplet size, Case study: toluene to benzoic acid A leading global specialty chemi- cals company uses oxygen enrich- ment technology from Linde for the oxidation of toluene to benzoic acid. Lind ’s technology has helped to increase the throughput and improve the quality of the prod- uct by increasing selectivity (more of the feed is reacted to the desired product). kg/h-lb/h μm ---- ---- 9 9 Droplet size, Linde initially presented lab results to the customer as proof- of-concept. Linde went on to offer a full-scale test at one of the two production lines to validate the lab results in an operating environment. Prior to testing, Linde supported a HAZOP study to demonstrate that the safety concept it presented was robust. During a regular shutdown of the plant, the Oxymix Injector was installed. The injector was connected to a mobile trailer with an evaporator and a test Oxymix Flowtrain oxygen control unit (see Figure 4 ). kg/h-lb/h μm ---- 13 12 0.06-0.13 separation industry and holds a MSc of Industrial Sciences degree in chemical engineering from the Hogeschool Antwerpen in Belgium.
constraints and physical dependen- cies across the entire supply chain. Digital twins based on process sim- ulation models are invaluable for overcoming these limitations seam- lessly in the design or operations phases to optimise plant profitability. Bio based materials is a very large category which could include everything from ethanol, purified veg - etable based oils, used cooking oils, fat by-products to bio based pyoils using wood or lignin feedstocks. The basic answer is yes, there are some bio based materials that can be used to produce drop-in fuels and a major example is the use of ethanol as a blend material for fuels. However, great care must be used as you proceed to ensure it meets the fuel requirements and has the chemical stability properties required. A key to evaluate is the level of processing the specific bio based material has already undergone and the final produced quality specifications for the product. Is it already processed in a manner to produce a fuel blending stock or was it processed with a target to be a refinery co-processing feedstock? Understanding the answer to this question is needed to plan how to best use the bio based material. A Joris Mertens, Principal Consultant, KBC, joris.mer- email@example.com Case A Case B Case C Case B Case C Table 7 Raw bio feedstocks cannot be used as fuel in road trans- ortatio . Lipids (vegetable oils/animal fats) need to be either trans sterified to FAME o hydrotreated to paraf - nic diesel (HVO/HEFA). The use of HVO/HEFA and FAME as low carbon bunker fuel are seriously considered alternatives Table 8 Table 9 to ammonia or hydrogen. There are some technical issues that can be addressed (such as viscosity, NOx). Considering that large ship engines re designed to process heavy residual fractions, it should even be pos- sible to process untreated vegetable oils. However, lti- mately the use of lipids as bunker fuel (either FAME, HEFA or straight vegetable oils) is likely to be limited due to availability and competition with road diesel and SAF (sustainable aviation fuel). Petro-SIM is a trademark of KBC (A Yokogawa Company). successfully deployed in various petrochemical plants, upstream petrochemical processes such as FCC, and in Claus units. Key safety requirements include a flow control valve enabling rapid, even mix- ing of the oxygen feed upstream of the reactor; a flow control cab - inet ensuring the oxyg n content remains under he MOC; va ious safety features uch as blo k-and- bleed valves to cut off the gas sup - ply in the event of an emergency; piping temperature control to make sure that cold oxygen does not enter the air duct; and complete discon- nection of the gas supply from the processing plant during shutdowns (with gas creep safeguards). Rodolfo Tellez-Schmill is PetroSIM Product Manager with KBC Advanced Technologies. He has over 20 years of experience in chemical engineering activities including process engineering, quality control, project management, research and development, technical support and training, with a strong background in process simulation, control, optimisation, and design. He holds a PhD in chemical engineering from the University of Calgary, and is a Professional Engineer registered in the Province of Alberta, Canada. Thomas Ralston leads MySep Pte Ltd’s business development for digital process engineering. With over 3o years of process engineering software experience, he has been key to shaping MySep’s product development and go-to-market strategies. His career has encompassed process engineering research, consultancy, management of software development and software product management. Industrial ga specialists such as Linde Gas have developed robust safety co cepts addressing all of these concerns and issues. With extensive experience in the design and delivery of oxygen enrichment applications and a proven track LOX tank Evaporator O xymix Flowtrain Air O Figure 4 Arrangement for the installation of an Oxymix Injector
Simulation results for theMFC overhead condensate receiver
Enriched air to oxidation reactor
kPa-psi 2.2-0.32 3.4-0.50 3.7-0.53
9.5-21.0 99.5-219 Q How do we obtain reliable estimates of relief load in a distillation column? A Maria Del Mar Galmes, Consultant, mariadelmar. firstname.lastname@example.org 46 45 127-280 Liquid carry-over, Relief loads are typically obtained by steady state sim- ulation and normally bring a significant overdesign due to the approximative nature of the assumptions. When this approach is not valid and a more accurate estimate is required, building a detailed dynamic sim- ulation model (for example, using Petro-SIM dynam- ics) is the alternative choice. The dynamic simulation model can be run in order to reproduce the behaviour of the column during many contingency scenarios such as power failure, cooling water failure, pump failure, and external fire. The dynamic calculation will provide the transient of the mass and heat trans- fer processes coupled with the thermodyna ic equi- librium that will take place in the involved pieces of equipment: the vapour and liquid contact in each column tray or packing section, the dynamic calcu- lation of residual energy supplied for the column material boiling, the residual column overhead cool- ing combined with the flow rate change as pump - ing equipment shut down. Publish d experien es report significant savings in flar network modifica - tions as well as in relief valves and their installation replacement. Liquid carry-over, kPa-psi 1.6-0.23 1.9-0.28
Pressure drop, record in the safe handling and metering of oxygen across different supply modes, the company spe- cialises in fail-safe oxygen injection technologies tailored to safety-crit- ical applications, and in reliable measuring and control equipment. In addition to its Oxymix Injector and Oxymix Flowtrain gas control cabinet, both designed for precise, even and rapid metering and ix- ing of the oxygen within a short distance to avoid hotspots and run- away reactions, the company offers extensive feasibility assessments and field trials, project execution services, plus maintenance and gas supply services to ensure all-round peace of mind. kPa-psi 0.63-0.09 0.70-0.10 Wim Moyson supports MySep Pte Ltd’s commecial, training and process design support activities as consultant. He has over 23 years of experience in the phase Oxygen enrichment in action Drawing on its experience in low, mid and high level oxygen enrich- ment applications, Linde supplies a low risk, low investment and short payback solution for debottlenecking Pressure drop, Case B Case C
Simulation results for the first-stage compressor K.O. drum
Simulation results for the second-stage compressor K.O. drum
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