Decarbonisation Technology - May 2023 Issue

sourced from biomass, such as agricultural and forestry waste (Liu, Li, Koh, Ang, & Lee Lam, 2021). Conversion of biomass into methanol is achieved via the production of syngas from the thermal treatment of the feedstock (Liu, Li, Koh, Ang, & Lee Lam, 2021). Syngas then undergoes the same catalytic process employed when producing methanol from a hydrocarbon- based feedstock. Another route in development is the synthesis of methanol from low-carbon intensity hydrogen and captured carbon (Carbon Recycling International, 2023). Again, these are energy-intensive processes that depend on the availability of renewable electricity. Emissions reduction through shore power Ships also emit CO 2 and other harmful emissions while at port, which contributes to the deterioration of air quality at port towns and cities through the release of PM, NOx, and SOx. At ports, many ships often switch to their auxiliary steam boilers to provide power for many systems, electricity, sanitary systems, and air conditioning (Aijjou, Bahatti, & Raihani, 2019). Carbon emissions while docked are approximately 1.58 CO 2 e kg per deadweight tonnage (DWT – the sum of all cargo, ballast, freshwater, provisions, passengers, and crew). A typical cargo vessel has a DWT of 10,000 tonnes (Yieldstreet, 2023); this represents 15.8 tonnes of CO 2 e per vessel. From the total of 1.58 kgCO 2 e/DWT emissions, 1.10 kgCO 2 e/ DWT are associated with berthing. These emissions can be eliminated when using ship- to-shore power employing electricity from a

renewable source (Alamoush, Olcer, & Ballini, 2021), (Budiyanto, Habibie, & Shinoda, 2022). The adoption of shore power faces significant obstacles, including the complexity and expense of implementing such projects (Qi, Wang, & Peng, 2020). There are also legitimate concerns regarding the potential for emissions displacement when using on-shore power. This occurs when emissions associated with the generation of electricity, particularly when the grid is powered by fossil fuels, are shifted from the ship to the power plant rather than being effectively reduced in the overall emissions output. However, this can be remedied through the provision of electricity from renewable sources. Additionally, long payback periods and uncertain returns make them less attractive to private investors. Despite the widespread recognition of the urgent need to address localised air pollution and climate change, there is little policy support for shore power. Customisation of port-side infrastructure to fit specific vessel segments’ requirements in terms of voltage, frequency, and power demand is also necessary, adding to the complexity and expense of implementation. The primary barrier to adoption is the high capital costs associated with implementing shore power infrastructure (Qi, Wang, & Peng, 2020). Given the high costs of energy networks and generation, a green maritime fund is suggested to support shore power projects. With the necessary financial support, shore power has the potential to become an effective tool for reducing air pollution and GHG emissions in the industry.


Powered by