References 1 G S Patience, R Bockrath, Butane oxidation process development in a circulating fluidized bed, Applied Catalysis A: General , 2010, 376, (1), 4-12. 2 H P Wu, Y Jin, M Sun, M Yang, Enhancing catalytic performance of phosphorus-modified ceria supported VPO catalysts for n-butane oxidation, Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical , 2016, 414, 1-9. option. It is also possible to use indirect electrical heat- ing or direct heating with an electrical plasma. These heating modes could use renewable electricity, biome- thane, or low carbon hydrogen to minimise CO 2 emis- sions from the process. Research into methane pyrolysis has been undertaken since the 1960s but the technology was not implemented at scale for many decades. In the past 10 years methane pyrolysis has picked up momentum and several companies have piloted various technologies. Each project has sought to overcome some of the hal enges inherent in this process. It is only in the past few years that we have seen commercial operations based on methane pyrolysis emerge. Conclusion Silicon found in crude oil streams comes not only from the antifoaming agents used in coker units. Different polysiloxanes are used in the extraction, transport, and refining of crude oil and these are cracked in the dif - ferent refining process s. The thermal dec mposition p oducts of polysiloxanes are conc ntrated mainly in naphtha streams and they poison hydrotr t- ing, reforming, and isomerisation catalyst via their adsorption onto th alumina surface, blocking access to active sites. 3 A Sáez, A Flores-Maradiaga, M Toledo, Liquid butane as an alternative fuel for diesel oil burners, Applied Thermal Engineering , 2012, 45-46, 1-8. 4 C Yang, K Teo, Y Xu, Butane extraction of model organic pollutants from water, Journal of Hazardous Materials , 2004, 108, (1-2), 77-83. 5 S Mokhatab, W Poe, Handbook of Natural Gas Transmission and Processing , Elsevier Inc., Netherlands, 2012. The present analys s eliberat ly did not consid r the cost of any carbon cr dit associated with the recovery and/or sequ tering of CO 2 o the reader can apprec ate the impact of these subsidies which vary by geography, local/regional policies, political appetite, environmental restrictions, and other facto s. Neither was the incremental cost and logistics for CO 2 sequestratio / storage c nsid- ered. Ther are multiple initiatives aimed at CO 2 capture or reuse, as mentioned in the previous section. C rbon credits and economics of sequestration are essential to bridge the gap in cost between grey and blue hydrogen. Conclusion In summary, thorough analysis of field data and tray hyd aulics together w th g mma scanning were key factors for a time- and cost-effici nt troublesho ting. C o e collaboration between the plant owner, T a erco scan experts, and engine ri g company p rsonnel made the troubleshooting discus ed here a su c s. 6 Y Liu, A Chang, K Pashikanti, Petroleum Refinery Process Modeling: Integrated Optimization Tools and Applications, Wiley Publishing Company, New Jersey, USA, 2018. 7 V Bulasara, R Uppaluri, A Ghoshal, Revamp study of crude distillation unit heat exchanger network Energy integration potential of delayed coking unit free hot streams, Applied Thermal Engineering , 2009, 29 (11-12), 2271-2279. Plasma pyrolysis from renewable power Monolith Materials started the development of its methane pyrolysis process in 2012. In 2016 construction started on the Olive Creek 1 plant in Lincoln, Nebraska. It was commissioned in 2020 and has a production capacity of 14 000 t/y of carbo black nd around 2500 t/y of hydrogen. A second, large plant named Olive Creek 2 is planned to have a capacity of 194 000 t/y of carbon black and will produce close to 40 000 t/y of hydrogen which will be converted to ammonia for potential use in the local corn belt as a fertilizer. In order to eliminate silicon compounds from naph- tha, these streams were hydrotr ated in units hat use catalysts specially designed to trap silicon; these cata- lysts have a higher surface area tha traditional hydro- treating cataly ts. The silicon adsorption pr cess alumina ccurs by a different re tion pathway and two kinds of silicon compounds were form d: organic and inorganic. Until today, silicon has been considered perma ent poison. In order to avoid final disposal o catalysts poisoned with silicon, a rejuvenati pr - cess was develop d, which enables the possibility of reusing these catalysts at le t three tim s. The reju - venation process can b coupled to curre t CNHDT units fitted wi h STRs. The rejuvenation process can e carried out without unloading the catalyst from the reactor. Conclusions Hydrogen is nowadays labelled with a colour associated with its production process, feedstock, and emissions, among other considerations. Grey, blue, and green hydro- gens are the most common known types; each one with its pros and cons. Blue hydrogen (fossil fuel base with CO 2 sequestered) is viewed as a bridge between l w cost, hig emissions grey hydrogen a d high cost, limited scale, zero emissions green hydrogen. Compared to grey hydrogen, blue hydrogen requires a higher capital and variable cost for CO 2 recovery and sequestration. 8 A Lulianelli, E Drioli, Membrane engineering: Latest advancements in gas separation and pre-teatment processes, petrochemical industry and refinery, and future perspectives in emerging applications, Fuel Processing Technology, 2020, 206, 106464. 9 J E, Gallagher, Natural Gas Measurement Handbook, Elsevier Inc., Netherlands, 2007. 10 R Meyers, Handbook of Petroleum Refining Processes, Fourth Edition, McGraw-Hill Education, USA, 2016. 11 O Bedair, Design Of Mobile Facilities used In Surface Mining Projects ASCE, Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction , 2015, 21 (1), 04015007. In this process, which was initially developed by Kværner, 1 methane is heated to 1650°C using an argon plasma generated by electrodes powered by renewa- ble energy sources. At this temperature, the methane molecule splits. This eventually leads to the formation of carbon bla k, while the protons split off from the methane molecule and recombine to form hydrogen molecules. The graphite electrodes may provide some catalytic effect and the initially formed carbon black granules catalyse the production of additional carbon black. In various papers related to methane pyrolysis, various additives to the methane have been identified that can either stimulate the reaction 2 or enhance the physical properties of the carbon black. 3 The reaction takes place without the need for an additional solid catalyst. 12 O Bedair, Rational Design of Pipe-Racks Used For Oil Sands and Petrochemical Facilities, ASCE, Periodical on Structural Design and Construction , 2014, 20 (2), 04014029. 13 O Bedair, modern steel design and construction used in Canada’s oil sands industry, Journal of Steel Design Construction and Research , 2014, 7 (1), 32-40 2 RadhakrishnanT S, NewMethod for Evaluation of Kinetic Parameters and Mechanism of Degradation from Pyrolysis – GC Studies: Thermal Degradation of Polydimethylsiloxanes; Analytical and Spectroscopy Divisi n, Polymers and Special Chemicals Group,Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuram 695 022, Indi , 1998. 3 US Patent 8,716,159 B2. The emissions from incremental use of energy (pri- marily power) required for compression, separation, and sequestration of CO 2 must also be accounted for. Carbon credits, availability of sequestration sites, and processing costs are e sential for th deployment of blue hydrogen. Green hydrogen must use renewable sources to produce tru zero emissi ns in the production process; this repre- sents challenges in terms of cost and scale of production among other factors. Lowell Pless was the Busin s Development Manager – Distillation Applications with Tracerco, located in Pasadena, Texas, and is now a consultant for the company. He has bee applying radioisotope techniques in process troubleshooting for over 30 years, originally with Tru-Tec S rvices (acquir d by Tracerco in 2006) and started the tower scanni g servic for Tru-Tec in Western Europe and the Middle East. He holds a BS degree in chemical engineering from the University of Texas at Austin, is a register d Professional Engineer i the State of Texas, participates on the Design and Practices committee for Fractionation Research (FRI), and is a member of the American Institute of Chemical Engineer . 14 O Bedair, Cost-effective modeling strategies for spliced steel connections. J ournal of Applied Mathematical Modelling, 2011, 35 (4), 1881-1892. 15 O Bedair, Economical damage classification procedure for blast resistant buildings in petrochemical plants, ASCE, Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction , 2020, 25(3), 04020020. The prospect of producing t rquois hydrogen from renewable electricity means hat this will be a carbon neu ral hydrogen generation proces , if the process can cope with the volatility of wind and solar electricity supply. If the electricity is sourced via a PPA then the operation would need to follow the electricity supply of the associated wind and solar farms, which seems to be challenging. Otherwise, green certificates can be purchased to cover for the electricity input, but then this process plant is just another constant load in the electricity grid, like an aluminium smelter. 16 AISC. 2006. Steel Construction Manual, 14th ed. Chicago: AISC. 17 AISC. 2010. Design of blast resistant buildings in petrochemical facilities: ASCE petrochemical committee, task committee on blast resistant design. New York: ASCE. 18 ASCE. 2010. Minimum design loads and other structures. ASCE/ SEI 7. Reston, VA: ASCE. 19 ASCE’s Task Committee on Wind-Induced Forces. 2011. Wind loads for petrochemical and other industrial facilities. Reston, VA: ASCE. Patricia Perez-Romo is a Research Project Leader with the Mexican Petroleum Institute. With 20 years’ exper ence in research projects for the oil r fining indu try, she holds a PhD in chemical sciences from the University Pierre et Marie Curie, France. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org 20 CSA (Canadian Standards Association). 2004. Design of concrete structures. CAN/CSA-A23.3-04. Rexdale, Canada: CSA. 21 CSA (Canadian Standards Association). 2007. Limit states design of steel structures. CAN/CSA-S16-01. Rexdale, Canada: CSA. 22 NRC (National Research Council of Canada), 2010. National building code. Ottawa, ON: National Research Council of Canada. Osama Bedair is a Senior Consultant with significant design experience in heavy industrial projects that include oil & gas, petrochemical, mining and pipelines. He holds an MS and PhD in civil engineering from university of Waterloo. Moving carbon bed thermal process BASF has been conducting m thane pyrolysis devel- opment since 2010. From 2013-2017, within a pro- ject funded by the Federal Ministry of Edu ation and Research (BMBF), a lab-scale reactor was built and operated at Ludwigshaf n, Germany to ide tify key process parameters. 4,5,6 A follow-up project, also funded L is M Rodriguez Otal is a Senior Engin er in the oil refining i dustry. He has 40 years’ experience in evaluation, selection, and operation of refining catalysts. He previously worked at Pemex and Albemarle Corporation and holds a PhD degree in chemical sciences from the Autonomous National University of Mexico. Email: email@example.com Marco Márquez is Global Director of Hydrogen Business Develop ent – Refining with Matheson. He has more than 30 years of combined experience in the oil industry and with industrial gas companies and holds MSc and PhD in chemical engineering from North Carolina State University. Em il: firstname.lastname@example.org Thomas Walter heads the Equipment Process Design & Computational Mechanics department of Linde Engineering where his group is responsible for the process design of static equipment for petroch mical, na ural gas, ai separation, and hydrogen/synth sis gas lants. He holds a master’s degree in process engine ring from the Tec nical Univers ty, Dresden, Germany. 4 Pérez-Romo P, Aguilar-Barrera C, Laredo G C, Ángeles-Chávez C, Fripiat J, Novel solution for removing poisonous silicon from HDT catalysts, Applied Catal. 611 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1016/j. apcata.2020.117964 5 Pérez-Romo P, Aguilar-Barrera C, Nueva tecnología para remover selectivamente compuestos de silicio de catalizadores de hidrotratamiento, 5° Congreso Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Refinación, Aug 27-30, 2018, Mendoza, Argentina. 2 Marquez M, Bumgarner B, Optimum use of H 2 in the production of drop- in green fuels , 2020 AFPM Summit, www.hydrocarbonprocessing.com/ conferenc -news/2020/08/2020-afpm-summit-optimum-use-of-h2-in- the-production-of-drop-in-green-fuels David Bruder is a process and peration xpert for petrochemical plants with Linde Engineering, planning, simulating, and optimising all relevant processes within the Linde petrochemical portfolio with a focus on steam cracker separation technology. He is involved in brownfield/revamp projects such as capacity increase, optimisation, life cycle, energy, r troubleshooting existing plants, a d i the analysis of pr cess and operation performance/optimisation of running plants. Governme ts have a critical role to lay in addressing key challenges. Blue and green hydr gen an be profitable with carbon credits. References 1 The Future of Hydrogen , report prepared by the IEA for the G20, Japan (Ju 2019). André Perschmann is an equipment process design expert with Linde Engineering for eight years. He designs all types of columns and separators for petrochemical, natural gas, hydrogen, and synthesis gas plants. He is also involved in root cause analysis, tr ubleshooting, d revamp activities. He holds a diploma degree in bioprocess engineering from the Technical University of Braunschweig, Germany. 3 Methodology for the calculation of GHG emissions from Biofuels and Bioliquids , Doc. 2BS-PRO-03, www.2bsvs.org/documents/public/2BSvs_ PRO_03_Methodologie_d _Calcul_des_GES__F__v1.pdf TarunVakil is Director of Hydrogen Technology for Nippon Sanso Holding Corporation’s US subsidiary Matheso . He has more than 45 years of exp rience in ngineering and industrial gases and holds a BS egree in chemical engineeri g fromThe Indian I stitute ofTechnology, Bombay, and a MS egree in ch mical engineer ng fro Pennsylvania State Univ r it . Email: email@example.com should be carried out and, according to the results, a small purge of the solvent w uld have to be fixed. The removed s lvent is replaced with fr sh solvent. vary greatly by geography, source of product on, and other factors. 3 Th net emissions in the case of HVO naph- tha compared with natural gas are muc low r, since th feed emissions (main overall co tributor) are zero in the case of renewable HVO naphtha. When comparing grey and blu hydrogen, alt ough there are low r overa l emis- sions, the incremental compression power requirem n diminishes the overall net ffect. The bypass lines were put into operation in mid- 2018. T e steam cracker unit operating rat could be increased to 97% ethylene production capacity. On-specification overhead and bottom products were produced while the bypass was in operation. The debu- ta iser was o ened in a l ter turnaround and severe polymerisation fouling w s found on the bott m tray active areas and in their do ncomers (see Figure 7 ). ring. In total, four hot taps were installed on the pressure shell, two in the side downcomers of Tray 8 and two below the normal liquid level in the column sump. References 1 Pape P G, Silicones: Unique Chemicals for Petroleum Processing, SPE, Dow Corning Corp. References 1 Perry R H, Green D W, Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handboo k, New York, McGraw-Hill, 2008. 2 Kister H Z, What caused tower malfunctions in the last 50 years, Trans. Inst. Chem. Eng., 2003, Vol. 81, 5-26. 3 Pless L, Simon Xu, Distillation tower flooding – more complex than you think, Chemical Engineering, Jun 2002. 4 Lockett M J, Distillation Tray Fundamentals , Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1986.
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