PTQ Q1 2023 Issue

Magnetism inducement of diamagnetic substance by ferromagnetic substance in air (in gas)

Magnet strength: 6000 GS Diamagnetic material: FeO (FM powder) = 10:1

Vessel after MB

DM+FeO attracted

% attracted

DM γ -Al 2 O 3 SiO 2 SiC RFCC S Activated carbon

Vessel, g 21.7532 23.2471 23.319 22.8697 23.282 23.2832

DM, g 1.0047 1.0032 1.0015

FeO, g 0.102 0.1034 0.1052 0.1065 0.1044 0.1043

attraction, g

by MB, g

by MB 78.69 86.98 89.44 92.32 83.61 91.85

21.989 23.3912 23.4359 22.955 23.4632 23.3733

0.8709 0.9625 0.9898 1.0252 0.9245 1.0154


1.0013 1.0012

Table 6

Basic filter technology principles Nature of solid particles in the liquid process streams There are three types of solid particles in the liquid process steams: FM, paramagnetic, and DM materials. FM materials, such as FeO, FeS, Fe 2 O 3 , Ni, NiO, Co, and CoO, exhibit a strong attraction towards magnets, but they do not necessarily produce their own magnetic field. Paramagnetic materials, such as aluminum, exhibit only a weak attraction towards magnets. FM materials will pull themselves towards the north and south poles of mag- nets. Paramagnetic materials, on the other hand, will only pull themselves towards one of these poles. DM materials, including carbon and plastics, repel magnets when exposed to a magnetic field. Induction of magnetism in DM/paramagnetic solid substances for separation under external magnetic field It was unexpectedly discovered that common DM and/or paramagnetic solid substances, including, silica, alumina, activated carbon (diamond, graphite), elemental sulphur, lead, zinc, mercury (liquid), and bismuth, can be magnetised under an external magnetic field through proper interaction with an inducement FM solid substance, which already exists in the liquid stream. The inducement FM substance should not be in direct contact with the magnet, which gen- erates the external magnetic field. On the other hand, DM and/or paramagnetic solid sub- stances must be directly contacted or mixed with the induce- ment FM solid substances in the Universal Filter. The distance between the magnetic source (magnet bar) and mixture of

DM (or paramagnetic) and FM substances is properly main- tained for inducing a magnetism in the DM and/or paramag- netic solid substances that is strong enough for them to be attracted by the magnetic field, and thus removed from the fluid stream along with the FM solid substances. Magnetic inducement in DM substances Experiment 1 A FM substance was mixed with a DM sub- stance. The FM substance acted as a magnetic inducing agent, which generates magnetism in the DM substance in the presence of a magnetic field created by a permanent magnetic bar (MB). Hence, both FM and DM substances in the mixture are attracted by the MB. The experiments were performed in air (gas phase) at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. In each experiment, approximately 1.0g of DM powders and 0.1g of FeO FM powders were weighed by a precision balance (to 10 -4 g) and the mixture was placed in a precision-weighed glass vessel. A permanent MB with magnetic power of 6,000 GS (a regular magnetic strength) was then moved near the mixed powders to attract them from the vessel. After attraction, the MB was moved away, and the vessel with residual mixed powders was weighed again. Weight percent (wt%) of the mixed powders attracted by the MB was calculated and summarised in Table 6 . As shown in Table 6, under the inducement of 10% FeO (FM) powders, all tested DM powders showed strong mag- netism and as high as 80-92% DMs were attracted by the MB. The tested DM powders included γ -Al 2 O 3 (catalyst support), SiO2 (catalyst support), SiC, RFCC (SiO2 /Al 2 O 3 :

Magnetism inducement of diamagnetic substance by ferromagnetic substance in liquid

Permanent magnet bar (MB) strength: 6150 GS Water: RFCC : Fe2 O 3 = 50 : 1 : 0.1 Vessel, g Solution, g DM, g

Fe2O3, g

Vessel/solution after attraction by MB, g


% attracted by MB

attracted by MB








Water : RFCC : Fe2 O 3 = 50 : 1 : 0.3 Vessel, g Solution, g

DM, g

Fe2O3, g

Vessel/solution after attraction by MB, g


% attracted by MB

attracted by MB








Table 7


PTQ Q1 2023

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