RAC Prog r am me
Overhead boot ammonia
Ammonia salting point
Figure 8b Salting in second drum due to crude contaminated with ammonia and amines: boot ammonia vs ammonia salting point
the RAC programme, ammonia was reduced by ~26%, and the delta between dew point and ammonia SP increased by 5-6°C, as shown in Figures 8a and 8b . Conclusion Geopolitical tensions and economic pressures have increased the need for refiners to expand their crude basket. Introducing new crudes in the blend requires a holistic approach towards measuring and mitigating the risk of change. The biggest challenge with new crudes is often seen in the tank farm and desalter, which eventually becomes the bottleneck to the use of new crudes. Stokes’ law does not fully capture the nature of the bottleneck in desalting; the next most important factor is the extent to which there is an emulsion layer floating on the water inhibiting mass transfer. The case for qualitative and quantitative monitoring of the emulsion layer was laid out for refiners with similar challenges. The emulsion is treatable if chemistry is applied directly to the rag layer, as in the Exxon patent, or if it is removed from the desalter, followed by externally breaking the emulsion with heat, dilution, and/or chemistry. Dorf Ketal has found a way to resolve this emulsion ‘in- situ’, i.e., without removing it or designing a supplemental injection point into the desalter. The patented invention, called reactive adjunct, is based on aldehyde chemistry. In addition to resolving the rag layer emulsion, there is synergy between the EB and RAC for speeding the rate of emulsion breaking in the oil layer. The combination of these two new forces allows for significant improvements in crude flexibil - ity, as demonstrated in the three case histories. Finally, we are soon entering an era where crude selec- tion will become influenced by the carbon intensity of crude oil. This added complication adds to the urgency of finding new tools for changing crude slates without being restricted by the tank farm or desalter. Reactive adjunct is well placed to meet these needs.
4th-russia-at-9th-in-indias-crude-oil-import-sources/ 2 Exxon patent, US 10260007, Desalter Operation.
3 Rechtien R, Duggan G, Identifying the Impacts of Amine Contami- nation on Crude Units, Corrosion 2006, paper no. 06581 (Houston, TX: NACE, 2006). 4 Garcia J M, Lordo S A, Chemistry and Impacts of Commonly Used Amine-Based H₂S Scavengers on Crude Unit Towers and Overheads, Corrosion 2007, paper no. 07571 (Houston, TX: NACE 2007). 5 Comer D, Noland J, Ondyak J, A Chemical Breakthrough, Hydrocar- bon Engineering, Vol 21, Issue 9 (March 2016) pp 28-34. 6 R W Layer, The Chemistry of Imines, ACS Chemical Review, Vol 63, Issue 5 (October 1963) pp 489-510. 7 Noland J, Comer D, Shah P, Hilton N, Work Life Balance – Revisiting the Relationship between Desalting Efficiency and Overhead Corro - sion Control, Paper no. 9514 NACE Corrosion 2017. Mahesh Subramaniyam is Director, Research and Development at Dorf Ketal. He has over 25 years of industrial research experience and currently heads Dorf Ketal’s global research activities. He holds a doctorate degree in chemistry from Premium Institute of India (i.e. IIT Mumbai) and about 42 Indian and US patents. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Ajay Kumar Gupta is General Manager, Technical Service at Dorf Ketal and serves as Global Technical lead for refinery process applications in phase separation/corrosion control and antifoulant technologies. Email: email@example.com Debjit Chandra is Manager, Global Technical Services at Dorf Ketal. He has almost 15 years of experience in the hydrocarbon industry, imple - menting chemical programmes targeted to meet customers’ key busi- ness drivers. He holds a B. Tech. in chemical technology and a BSC in chemistry (Honours) from India. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Vivek Srinivasan is Senior Manager, Global Technical Services at Dorf Ketal and Technical Lead in refinery treatment programmes across Asia Pacific, Middle East and Europe. With 15 years of experience in refinery operations and process chemical industry, he serves as a pio - neer in the Dorf Ketal team, introducing and establishing new products across refineries. He holds a Bachelor of Technology degree in chemi - cal engineering from India. Email: email@example.com Hitenkumar Makwana is Regional Sales and Technical Manager with 22 years of experience understanding and solving complex process and operational challenges. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
References 1 Kancharla B, June 17, 2022, https://factly.in/data-in-2021-22-usa-at-
PTQ Q1 2023
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