PTQ Q2 2022 Issue

tal to ensure economic competitive- ness and, more importantly, the reduction of GHG emissions essential in the transition towards a low car- bon economy. The recent trends of renewables co-processing and higher demand for petrochemicals inter- mediates reinforce the necessity for energy optimisation actions aiming to minimise the energy intensity of the downstream operations. References 1 Karatas Z, Turkoglu S, A refinery’s journey to energy efficiency, PTQ , 2016. 2 Rikhtegar F, Sadighi S, Optimization of energy consumption, PTQ, 2015. 3 Concawe, 2012, EU Refinery Energy Systems and Efficiency: Available at: www.concawe. eu/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/rpt_12-03- 2012-01520-01-e.pdf (Accessed on 1 Mar 2022). 4 Fawkes S, Energy Efficiency: The Definitive Guide to the Cheapest, Cleanest, Fastest Source of Energy , 1st ed, Routledge Press, 2013. 5 Kaiser V, Industrial Energy Management: Refining, Petrochemicals and Gas Processing Techniques . Editions Technip, 1993. 6 Rossiter A P, Jones B P, E nergy Management and Efficiency for the Process Industries, 1st ed, Wiley-AIChE Press, 2015. 7 Ritchie H, Sector by Sector: Where do Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions Come From? Our World in Data, 2020. Available at: by-sector (Accessed on 1 Mar 2022). 8 Concawe, 2018, The low carbon pathways project: a holistic framework to explore the role of liquid fuels in the future low- emission mobility (2050) www.concawe. eu/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/Working- plan_Low-Carbon-Pathways.pdf (Accessed on 1 Mar 2022). 9 United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Available and Emerging Technologies for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Petroleum Refining Industry, 2010. Available at: sites/default/fi les/2015-12/documents/ refineries.pdf (Accessed on 1 Mar 2022). Marcio Wagner da Silva is a process engineer and Transfer and Storage Manager focusing on the crude oil refining industry based in São José dos Campos, Brazil. His experience includes research, design and construction for the oil and gas industry, including developing and coordinating projects for operational improvements and debottlenecking bottom of the barrel units. He holds a bachelor’s degree in chemical engineering from the University of Maringa, Brazil, a PhD in chemical engineering from the University of Campinas, and MBA in project management from Federal University of Rio de Janeiro.

Sulphur plant 1.8% H plant 5.8%

Flaring 2.5%

CRU coke burn-o 0.36%

Delayed coking 0.21%

Fluid/exi-coking units 0.60%

FCC unit coke burn-o 23.5%

Coke calcining 0.101%

Asphalt blowing 0.94%

Other 3.1%

Combustion 63.3%

Blowdown 0.167% Equipment leaks 0.013% Cooling towers 0.002%

Storage tanks 0.30% Wastewater treatment 0.40%

Figure 5 Contribution to global GHG emissions in crude oil refineries by source 9

derivatives storage, sulphur recov- ery plants, and flaring systems. These data reveal the relevance of minimising energy wastage in refining processes aiming to ensure the sustainability of the refining industry. Figure 6 summarises some actions that can minimise GHG emissions in crude oil refineries. Energy management actions are essential for the sustainability of crude oil refining and must be part of any strategy in the down- stream industry for both envi- ronmental impact and economic competitiveness. Conclusion Sustainability is not a choice but a question of survival for the down- stream oil industry. Adequate energy management actions are fundamen-

ated during the combustion of fuels (Concawe, 2018). Emissions must be reduced from all parts of the value chain, and as such it is essential to control and minimise the carbon emissions from crude oil refineries to achieve more sustainable opera- tions. In this regard, adequate man- agement of energy consumption in the refinery is a key focus area. Considering the internal pro- cesses of a typical crude oil refin - ery, according to data from the US Environmental Protection Agency (see Figure 5 ), refinery combustion processes are responsible for more than 60% of CO 2 gas emissions, fol- lowed by the burning of catalyst coke in FCC units at 23%, and hydro - gen production plants at close to 6%. The remaining contribution is shared among other processes such as

Reduction in g reenhouse g as e missions

Actions over direct emissions

Reduce the fuel consumption

Minimise the power generation

Optimisation actions

Improvements of fuel quality and eciency

Leak monitoring

Carbon capture technologies

Flare relief monitoring

Design and improvement modications

Use of renewable fuels

Eciency monitoring systems

Reliability actions

Carbon capture technologies

Figure 6 Available actions to minimise GHG emissions in crude oil refineries

76 PTQQ 2 2022

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