demand in 2021, while refineries are still configured to favour diesel pro - duction. 14 While the E20 roadmap sets out one mechanism to improve sustainability and security of fuel supply, gasoline demand growth will outpace this, so refiners need to invest in other gasoline technologies. Upcoming changes to CAFE norms emissions regulations will likely drive a shift to a 95 RON gasoline standard to come in line with EN228. This article discussed proven clean fuels technologies for production of ethers and alkylate, to make use of the FCC butane-bu - tylene fraction, a largely untapped resource in Indian refineries. The Trademarks K-SAAT, NEXETHERS, NEXOCTANE and ExSact are trademarks of KBR and/or its alliance partners (Exelus Inc and Neste Oyj). References 1 Petroleum Planning & Analysis Cell (2022) Consumption of Petroleum Products The captured CO 2 is compressed, dehydrated where appropriate, and used at site to produce saleable chemicals (urea for example), or it can be permanently stored in geo- logical formations (depleted oil and gas reservoirs, aquifers or saline formations) or used as feedstock for the production of synthetic fuels and building materials. Currently, most of the CO 2 captured is sold to oil companies for enhanced oil recovery (EOR), thus achieving both utilisation and sequestra- tion. Capturing CO 2 by means of post-combustion carbon capture arrang ment costs about $80/t. 3 Finally, it is highlighted that the nat ral gas price is the largest co t factor for both grey and blue hydro- gen. It accounts for 45-75%. Adding CO 2 capture, utilisation, and seques- tration (CCUS) systems to MSR, the Capex increases by about 50% and doubles the Opex due to CO 2 trans- portation and storage. In the Middle East, Russia, and USA, wherein atural gas is priced low, the blue hydrogen production cost is around $1.4/kg H2 . In other countries, the Available at: www.ppac.gov.in/content/147_1_ ConsumptionPetroleum.aspx (Accessed 2 Mar 22). 2 Ghosh P (2022) Impact of India’s Diesel Subsidy Reforms and Pricing Policy on Growth and Inflation Available at https://ssrn.com/ abstract=4019933 (Accessed 2 Mar 22). 3 Tech2 (2021) Maruti Suzuki decides against reintroducing diesel vehicles with an eye on upcoming emission norms Available at: CO 2 and the low density of the gas flowing through the absorption col - umn, the process calls for larger equipment and higher solvent circu- lation rates. This results in compara- tively more expensive plants.
www.firstpost.com/tech/news-analysis/ maruti-suzuki-decides-against-reintroducing- diesel-vehicles-with-an-eye-on-upcoming- emission-norms-10155411.html (Accessed 3 Mar 22). 4 Varadhan S, Samanta K (2019) India’s diesel demand set for detour as drivers switch to gasoline Available at: www.reuters. com/article/india-diesel-idUSL2N24904Q (Accessed 3 Mar 22). 5 SIAM (2014) Annual Report 2012-13 Available at: www.siam.in/uploads/ar/15- 15thAnnualReport2012-2013.PDF (Accessed 3 Mar 22). bl e hydrogen price may be greater than $2.4/kg H2 4 . Conclusion Today, natural gas is the primary source of hydrogen production, and steam methane reforming is the least expensive process used for chem- ical synthesis in the petrochemical (ammonia, methanol) and refinery industry. However, about 9-10 kg of CO is being generated per kg of pro- duced hydrogen, thus MSR contrib- utes to today’s climate changes. The e viro mental impact of the MSR’s operation can be mitigated by add- ing CCUS systems to the hydrogen manufacturing facilities. 6 SIAM (2021) Annual Report 2019-20 Available at: www.siam.in/uploads/ar/22- 22ndAnnual%20Report%202019-20.pdf (Accessed 3 Mar 22). 7 Mishra S (2021) A Deep-dive Into World EV Market: In India, only 8% of new car sales will be electric by 2030 against 28% globally, says Report Available at: https:// auto.economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/ passenger-vehicle/cars/a-deep-dive-into- world-ev-market-in-india-only-8-of-new-car- sales-will-be-electric-by-2030-against-28- globally-says-report/82570153 (Accessed 3 Mar 22). CO 2 can be captured either by adding a HP CO 2 removal unit (pre-combustion system) before the PSA or on the flue gas from the radiant/convective end of the team reformer. The post-combustion system removes more than 90% of the CO 2 ; however, it costs much more than the pre-combustion sys- tem. The choice between the two depends on the emission trading levels (CO 2 value) and the CCS cost. 8 Home A (2022) Column: Lithium supply crunch Part II - this time it’s for real Available at: www.reuters.com/markets/commodities/ lithium-supply-crunch-part-ii-this-time-its- real-2022-02-15/ (Accessed 3 Mar 22). 9 Government of India (2021) Roadmap for Ethanol Blending in India 2020-2025. New Delhi: NITI Aayog References 1 Hydrogen Energy and fuel cells, a v sion f our future, European Co m ssio , EUR 201719 EN. 2 Bawa D, Blue Hydrogen’s Role in the 10 PTI (2021) CAFE norms: Not a right time to implement next stage of emission norms,
says Maruti Suzuki chairman RC Bhargava Available at: https://economictimes. indiatimes.com/industry/auto/cars-uvs/ cafe-norms-not-a-right-time-to-implement- next-stage-of-emission-norms-says-maruti- suzuk i - cha i rman - r c - bha rgava/a r t i c l e show/85298979.cms (Accessed 3 Mar 22). Energy Transition, H2TECH (April 2021). 3 IEA, Energy Technology Perspectives 2020, Special report on carbon capture, utilization and storage 4 IEA, The future of hydrogen, 2019. 11 Mukherjee S (2021) India achieves highest- ever ethanol blend of 8.1% with petrol in 2020-21 Available at: www.business- standard.com/article/economy-pol icy/ india-achieves-highest-ever-ethanol-blend-of- 8-1-in-2020-21-121120700966_1.html (Accessed 3 Mar 22). 12 Qureshi V, Chate V, Srivastava P (2018) Refining-petrochemicals integration: an Indian view, Available at: www.digitalrefining.com/ article/1001478/refining-petrochemicals- integration-an-indian-view#.YiDFJ-hGiHs (Accessed 3 Mar 22). Lorenzo Micucci is a senior director in the technology and marketing departments of Siirtec Nigi SpA, Milan, Italy. He joined Siirtec Nigi (SN) to direct the process design and operations department and was later head of SN’s research and development department. During his time as R&D head, three patents were granted, two of which have been implemented on an industrial scale. He holds a MS degree in chemical engineering from the University of Bologna, Italy, and is enrolled as a Qualified Engineer in the Register of Milan Order of Engineers. 13 de Jesus S S, Maciel Filho R (2022) Are ionic liquids eco-friendly?, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews Vol. 157 112039. 14 Verma N, Tan F (2021) Analysis: India state refiners to buy more light crude to boost gasoline output Available at: www. reuters.com/world/india/india-state-refiners- buy-more- l ight -crude-boost -gasol ine- output-2021-09-24/ (Accessed 3 Mar 22). Sae d Mokhatab is recognised globally as a process technology expert i the fiel of natural gas processing. F over two decades, he has bee actively in o ved in different asp cts f large-scale gas processing projects ranging from concept to completi n. He has contributed to the understanding of gas processing knowledge, practices, and technologies through 300 technical papers and fou reference bo ks (publish d by Elsevier in t e US), which are widely r ad and highly respect d. He has held technical advisory po itions for leading professional journals, societi and conferences in the field of gas processing, and has rec ived a nu b r of inter ational awards and medals in recognition of his outstanding work in the natural gas industry. Edward Griffiths is Technology Manager for Refining, Technology Solutions, KBR. Based at KBR’s London Technology Centre in the UK, he is responsible for KBR’s clean fuels technology business. He holds a Master’s Degree in chemical and process engineering from Newcastle University, UK.
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