Decarbonisation Technology - May 2023 Issue

may increase to 10-13% within a few decades (King, 2022). Introduction of environmental regulatory framework has been slow but is now gathering speed, with mechanisms such as the EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) placing a price on carbon emission and the Carbon Intensity Indicator (CII) ensuring gradual improvements in emissions are achieved by marine vessels. MSAR and bioMSAR can deliver immediate benefits to schemes such as these. The EU ETS will price maritime carbon emissions in the EU using a cap-and-trade scheme that requires shipowners to buy credits relating to the amount of carbon a vessel emits when travelling through the European Economic Area (EEA) (DNV, 2023). The efficiency and subsequent fuel consumption benefits achieved by switching from HFO to MSAR will reduce fuel costs and carbon payments to the EU ETS. Switching to bioMSAR will provide even greater cost savings. The CII mechanism assigns a vessel grade ranging from A to E based on the carbon emissions it emits every year as a function of its size and weight (DNV). Achieving a D or E grade requires corrective action, with the grade boundaries becoming stricter each year. Whether via traditional bunkering methods or Quadrise’s blend-on-board system, burning its emulsion fuels will create a pathway to achieving these requirements. Renewable glycerine or other biofuels could be gradually introduced into the vessel’s fuel blend year- on-year to match the stricter grade boundary requirements, allowing the shipowner to balance regulatory obligations, CO 2 emissions, and cost. Zero-carbon future Liquid biofuels have become increasingly significant as a solution for the marine, power, and industrial sectors to achieve their net-zero targets. Quadrise’s bioMSAR Zero project aims to develop a commercially competitive net-zero fuel by 2030 by replacing the hydrocarbon element of its liquid fuels. An obvious choice is to increase the glycerine content of its bioMSAR formulation, and testing has shown

stable emulsions can be made at glycerine concentrations up to 70% to date. Progress has been achieved in emulsifying numerous bio-components with water and water-glycerine phases. Stable OIW emulsions have been created by emulsifying B50 blends (50% FAME, 50% HFO) and even 100% FAME with water. Combustion testing of these fuels is being completed at Aquafuel facilities to demonstrate that bioMSAR technology can achieve efficiency benefits in a diesel engine for FAME and FAME blends. The process of converting waste agricultural and woody residues into liquid biofuels is a rapidly developing sector and offers promising scalability due to its abundance of feedstock. Vertoro is a Netherlands-based biotechnology company that can transform waste lignocellulosic biomass into liquid fuels for the marine sector, offering Quadrise a credible pathway to achieving its 2030 goal. By combining bioMSAR technology with Vertoro’s patented process to extract crude sugar oils (CSO) from woody biomass, Quadrise has created a stable lignin-based emulsion fuel blend containing 50% residue or HFO, 40% CSO, and 10% water. Further optimisation of the formulation and engine testing is underway, with the ultimate objective to commercialise this fuel for large-scale use in the marine sector. The versatility of bioMSAR technology directly benefits the emerging alternative biofuel market. Low-value, unconventional intermediary streams from biomass processing can be successfully blended as emulsion fuels, removing the requirement of the client for further fuel processing and supplying the end user with a cheaper fuel. Emulsion testing continues on an array of advanced biofuels for the future, including lignin-based fuels, inedible vegetable oils, and pyrolysis oils. We are now closer than ever to decarbonising the use of HFO and achieving a net-zero future. MSAR, bioMSAR, and bioMSAR Zero are trademarks of Quadrise. CSO is a trademark of Vertoro. VIEW REFERENCES Jack Williams


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