Decarbonisation Technology - November 2022

countries/regions have suitable solar, wind, or hydropower supply Hence, some regions will be highly dependent on the import of low-carbon hydrogen or associated low-carbon fuels to cover their future energy requirements. Ammonia will be another key molecule Transport of hydrogen is an important consideration in assuring a global supply. The first option is to transport hydrogen in a liquified form, as has been executed successfully for LNG over the years. However, the extreme conditions (temperature and pressure) needed to maintain hydrogen in a liquified state suggest this is not feasible for long-distance transportation. Hence, there is a need for a cost-effective hydrogen carrier that can be added to the world’s logistical network relatively easily. KBR has more than 60 years of experience handling ammonia and liquid hydrogen. We believe the ammonia molecule will become the preferred hydrogen carrier for long distances, providing cost-effective hydrogen transportation using an established infrastructure that can be scaled to future requirements. This view is supported by many stakeholders globally, evidenced by the number of ammonia-related projects currently being considered worldwide. In fact, DNV predicts that the global trade of ammonia will increase up to 150 MTPD, more than six times the volume traded and shipped today. However, the conversion from hydrogen to ammonia does not come without a cost, so the most efficient and scalable technologies must be used, irrespective of the source of hydrogen. KBR’s Purifier/PurifierPlus and K-Green technologies can efficiently deliver up to 6,000 MTPD of ammonia in a single train layout. Despite such large scales already being available and engineered, the predicted demand for ammonia will require several such mega plants to come on stream annually through to 2050. Availing low-carbon hydrogen globally Even though ammonia is an excellent hydrogen carrier, it is not always the preferred fuel or component in the low-carbon value chain; there will often be a need for cost-efficient conversion back to hydrogen at the destination of use or

further distribution. Hence, disassociation of ammonia is needed (cracking) to complete the value chain of low-carbon hydrogen. Ammonia cracking technology has been around for decades on a relatively small scale and often without much focus on efficiency. Consequently, a step change to better efficiency and a significant scale-up is needed for the low- carbon hydrogen value chain to be complete and feasible. In addition, the technology must be flexible enough to deliver various purity levels of hydrogen, ranging from the lowest needed for industrial fuels processes to the highest A step change to better efficiency and a significant scale-up is needed for the low-carbon hydrogen value chain to be complete and feasible needed for mobility purposes. Launched in 2022 and building on well-known process steps in ammonia production, KBR’s ammonia cracking technology provides flexibility in size and purity, with no additional CO₂ emitted. We expect to see several of these units in the coming years at either an end user’s facility or central locations where large-scale volumes are distributed over shorter distances via a dedicated hydrogen pipeline to multiple clients. Ongoing developments Achieving net zero will require ongoing development of existing and new technologies and a framework to support the investments needed to build the complexes and infrastructure to connect it all. We are working closely with partners in the value chain leading to low-carbon fuels to ensure our solutions meet the requirements, and we are committed to providing reliable and efficient new solutions. However, the net-zero challenge is immense, so we are always open to exploring new partnerships, collaborations, and alliances that could get us all closer to the target.

Henrik Larsen


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