Decarbonisation Technology - November 2022

Green H otake (optional)

Green power

Green H

Battery limit


Linde Electrolysis

Power system

Reheat furnace




Linde O compression/ treatment

Green O

Linde Cojet System H burners

Linde REBOX Hyox H burners

Green O otake (optional)

Linde technology

For full decarbonisation of 2 Mt/y steel plant with 100% DRI:

DRI Total H and O consumption per tonne of rolled steel EAF Reheat

H and O production

1.1 GW

Electrolyser capacity

H, kg/t





H production

210,000 Nm/h

O, kg/t

0 - 55



85 - 140

O production

100,000 Nm/h

30% of electrolyser O production is used, 70% potentially for other otakers

Figure 4 Integrated green steel production ecosystem

as a fuel. As the electrolyser produces both hydrogen and oxygen, we would then have a complete integrated system. However, such a plant can also serve in a hub where additional production of hydrogen and oxygen are supplied to neighbouring off-takers. Summary The steel industry can decarbonise significantly with hydrogen steelmaking or CO₂ capture and sequestration where feasible. However, these approaches are longer-term (beyond the year 2030) solutions that are not sustainable today due to the capital and operating cost impacts on steelmakers. For them to become sustainable or viable, we need a combination of higher costs of CO₂ emissions, plus a well-developed infrastructure to supply low-cost renewable power and hydrogen at a very large scale.

Steelmakers can take short-term steps with incremental and stepwise sustainable decarbonisation approaches that are affordable today. Energy efficiency improvements with oxyfuel combustion – with fossil fuel savings of 20-60% – offer immediate CO₂ reductions with low Capex commitments on several unit processes. Proven oxyfuel-based solutions can reduce the steel industry’s CO₂ emissions by 200 Mt/a. Integrated steel mills can decarbonise by raising blast furnace tuyere injectant levels using external gasification, increasing the scrap ratio in converters, and charging DRI/HBI produced by the gasification of low carbon footprint feedstocks and alternate fuels such as coke oven gas.

Joachim von Schéele


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