Decarbonisation Technology - November 2022

the steel industry. Within those projects, experimentation was carried out at IFPEN in Solaize, France, on a small-scale pilot unit (0.2 kgCO₂/h). It included parametric studies using representative synthetic gas and a long- duration test (1,500 hours) with the addition of impurities present in real gases to measure the degradation of the DMX Solvent. The main conclusions drawn from those preliminary studies were: • That DMX Solvent appears significantly less energy intensive than MEA 30 wt% • For steel mill applications, it is more cost effective to capture the CO₂ directly from the blast furnace gas, rather than from the power station flue gas, due to higher CO₂ partial pressures in blast furnace gas Industrial pilot testing: 3D project As a result of the positive conclusions of the Valorco study summarised above, the partners in the project (ArcelorMittal, TotalEnergies, IFPEN, and Axens) decided to install an industrial demonstration pilot in ArcelorMittal’s steel mill plant in Dunkirk. The main targets of this operation are: • To demonstrate the applicability of the DMX technology on blast furnace gases • To confirm the energetic performance of the technology • To confirm the sizing rules and tools for future DMX units through parametric tests

• To assess the main performance parameters in terms of solvent degradation, solvent and VOC, emissions, and quality of CO₂ produced (including the possibility of recovering the CO₂ under pressure) • To confirm long-term stability of the Process This project, named 3D for DMX Demonstration in Dunkirk, is led by IFPEN with support from the European Union under Horizon 2020 funding. In addition to the four original partners, another eight entities have now joined the 3D project: DTU, Gassco AS, Greenflex, Brevik, Uetikon (Group Sequens), Air Products, ETH Zurich, and John Cockerill. Apart from the DMX Demonstration in Dunkirk, at the heart of the project, other tasks are being undertaken: • Pre-FEED for a large-scale DMX unit to be installed in Dunkirk as well, which could be the next step for the industrialisation of the DMX technology • Production of the Solvent • Heat recovery from various sources in the steel mill and integration with DMX • Conditioning, liquefaction, and transport to suitable offshore storage sites in the North Sea of the recovered CO₂ • Social acceptability of CO₂ capture in Dunkirk • Possibility of developing an industrial cluster for CCS in the Dunkirk industrial area

VALORCO project (steel mill case)

3D project

TRL 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9


System test launch and operations System / subsystem development Technology demonstration Technology development Research to prove feasibility Basic technology research

8 7

OCTAVIUS (coal case)






Lab tests @ IFPEN

2020 Bubble size: associated eort (a.u.)






Figure 2 Timeline of DMX process development


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