Catalysis 2022 issue


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Diluent gas distribution

Microuidics distrebution


Gas 1 Gas 2 Gas 3

Base plate


Mixed gas feed distribution

Reactors Heated blocks of 4 reactors Active liquid distrebution (ALD) Reactor-in- reactor technology

Liquid feed

Active liquid distribution (ALD)

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Heating zone

Single- string reactor loading

Isothermal zone

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Reactor pressure control

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Pressure controller

Adjusting bed

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O-ring Catalyst Inert Frit

2nd analyser

Cooling tray 10 –80 ˚C

Euent stove (max 120˚C)

Figure 2 Reactor block with tube-in-tube design

Figure 1 Schematic of Flowrence 16 parallel reactors configured for hydoprocessing applications. More information can be found in the several patents

validated the resulting data quality (repeatabil - ity, reproducibility, and scalability).

Technology Micro-pilot plant

Figure 1 shows a sche - matic overview of the 16 parallel reactors micro-pilot plant. This unit employs Flowrence technology, which ena -

Figure 4 16 channels microfluidic distributor glass chip

bles the tight control of process con - ditions – temperature, flow rates, and pressure. The Flowrence high-throughput systems employ a series of pat - ented technologies to ensure the highest precision in controlling the flow, temperature, and pressure. Five key constituents’ technologies play a crucial role in the overall performance of the parallel reactors system. 1 Tube-in-tube reactor systemwith effluent dilution The tube-in-tube design ( Figure 2 ) offers several advantages. The reactors can be quickly and easily replaced without the need for any connections. Each reactor block has a large and accurate isothermal zone

where we can ensure a correct plug flow regime with reactor-to-reac - tor temperature uniformity ≤0.5°C (≤0.9°F). The use of an inert diluent gas to maintain the reactor pressure is used to stop undesirable reactions directly after the catalyst bed, serv - ing as a carrier gas for the gas prod - ucts analysed in the GC. Single-pellet-string-reactor loading Catalyst packing in the SPSR is straightforward and does not require special procedures. A single string of catalyst particles is loaded in the reactors with an internal diameter (ID) that closely matches the average particle diameter. This applies to single catalyst systems, as well as stacked bed systems. An

inert non-porous diluent material (with a defined average particle size distribution) is used as a filler to enhance hydrodynamics. Before final loading in a steel reactor tube, we often perform a trial loading in quartz reactors to confirm the pack - ing ( Figure 3 ). The extrudates are used as delivered by the vendors. Microfluidics gas distribution A mass flow controller determines each gas flow. The gas flow distribu - tion over the 16 reactors uses micro - fluidic glass chips ( Figure 4 ), which Figure 3 Example loading with trilobes and cylinders extrudates with quartz reactors, with diluent at the bottom (left) and without diluent (right)

Catalysis 2022 55

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