Catalysis 2022 issue

Zeolite crystalli s ation

Synergies maximise value in application

Mesopori s ation

Catalyst making


Figure 5 Overview of mesoporisation in the zeolite catalyst supply chain

Productivity (kg/m/h)

Waste water (L/kg)

Cost chemicals (USD/kg)

to crystallise zeolites with a boosted external surface (hence small crys- tals). For example, mesoporous zeolites can be made from very inexpensive large-crystal zeolites. As Zeopore’s mesoporisation costs are low, a family of tunable mes- oporous zeolites can be obtained from a single large crystal parent zeolite at a fraction of the cost com- pared to such nanozeolites. In catalyst development, a key role is played by the interaction of the binder (and other matrix com- ponents) with the external surface of the zeolite. This external surface is amplified and tunable (hydropho - bic versus hydrophilic, for example) by mesoporisation. Accordingly, Zeopore enables a considerable synergy of mesoporisation and cat- alyst making. The latter has proven equally true for much more efficient metal deposition (vide infra). Fluidised bed catalytic cracking The largest market potential for mesoporous zeolite catalysts can be found in fluidised bed catalytic cracking (FCC), where benefits are attained from an increased bottoms conversion, reduced coke forma- tion, higher middle distillate and olefin yields, and more qualitative products. In enhancing the accessibility of the faujasite zeolites used in FCC catalysts, the primary challenge is to do so in a cost-effective manner. Equally important is retaining the hydrothermal stability required to withstand the demanding regenera- tion cycle. By working on the low-cost NaY zeolite and exploring synergies in (rare-earth-free) stabilisation, Zeopore has developed a platform

Std mesopori s ation


Figure 3 Key process parameters comparing Zeopore’s processes to standard mesoporisation practices

Mesopori s ation at dierent scales







Gram scale


Kilogram scale

Industrial scale at third party



Figure 4 Scale-up trajectory of mesoporisation leading up to an industrial trial. With increasing scale, the efficiency of the process increases and the standard deviation on product specs decreases



Conventional Std mesopori s ation Zeopore



Microporosity Mesoporosity

Figure 6 Porous properties of faujasite zeolites prepared via conventional methods (orange), standard mesoporisation (grey), and Zeopore (blue)

46 Catalysis 2022

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