tail gas with a H 2 S/SO 2 ratio of 2, at the indicated temperature. Under these conditions, the catalyst, albeit almost, cannot be sulphided to its full potential. On the other hand, considerably higher activity is still achieved compared to the alumina based low temperature catalyst that is considered the market’s stand- ard, in the same test. When a tem- perature above 280°C is reached in the catalyst bed with Claus tail gas, the activity is in the range of what would be considered as acceptable. When the start-up conditions would be optimised to a higher H 2 S/SO 2 ratio and increased H 2 concentra- tion the performance can likely be enhanced. Conclusions Euro Support’s new generation tita- nia based low temperature tail gas catalyst shows a marked robustness to the start-up procedure compared to its common alumina based coun- terparts. Catalyst performance tests show that the alumina based CoMo catalysts are insufficiently sulphided under best possible in-situ start-up conditions to obtain an acceptable
activity where no sulphur slip into the quench tower can occur, even at start of run. By contrast, the tita- nia based CoMo catalyst can be sul- phided effectively in a worst-case scenario where virtually no exo- therm in the catalyst bed is achieved. The titania based tail gas catalyst proved it is feasible that this kind of TGTU catalyst can exhibit suffi - cient activity even when no start-up procedure is applied. A simple acti- vation in process gas under normal operation conditions has proven to be sufficient in the lab. More research is ongoing to map out the boundary conditions for successful operation. Euro Support benchmarked the test data to literature performance data and although test and start-up conditions are different, the com - parison underscores the superior performance of TiO 2 -CoMo com- pared to its alumina based coun- terparts under realistically applied start-up conditions. Acknowledgements Hana Svoboda, Michal Vesely, Dr. Oleg Bortnovskiy, Dr. Olga Gonsiorová and
Jan Valenta (Euro Support Manufacturing Czechia s.r.o.) are kindly acknowledged for their indispensable contribution to these developments. References 1 Hereijgers B, Van Nisselrooij P, Van de Giessen B, Van Hoeke M, The Benefit of using titania in Claus and tail gas catalysis, Sulphur 369, Mar-Apr 2017. 2 Bohme G, TGTU Catalyst sulphiding – comparing field experience with published procedures, CRU Sulphur , 2020. 3 Crevier P, Roisin E, Bloemendal G, TG-107 low temperature tail gas treating catalyst is hot stuff, 59th Lawrence Reid Gas Conditioning Conference, Feb 2009. 4 Huffmaster M, Krueger K, Wijnbelt H, DiSalvo D, Key to a long life – Effective activation of low temperature Tail Gas catalysts and damage avoidance, Brimstone , Sept 2019. 5 Roine A, HSC Chemistry , 4th ed, Outokompu Research Oy, Pori, Finland, 1999. Bart Hereijgers is Business Manager for Custom Catalysts at Euro Support B.V., responsible for the development of production routes to translate customer specifications into commercial scale produced products. In holds a MS in nanomaterials: chemistry and physics, and a PhD in inorganic chemistry and catalysis from Utrecht University
Carelflex ® drives innovation. CATALYST SULFIDING WITH DMDS AND CARELFLEX ® SERVICE, A STANDARD SOLUTION!
Care & Safety Experienced & trained team, dedicated & reliable equipment, highest industry standard certifications.
Flexibility Daily supply chain adjustment, full equipment portfolio, sole sulfiding service available worldwide.
Innovation Digital DMDS injection skid, H 2 S analyzer, telemetry & real time monitoring, fast & easy chat with refinery.
Catalysis 2022 39
Powered by FlippingBook