Catalysis 2022 issue

cracking towards LCO, and higher Z/M base catalysts to convert towards gasoline and LPG. The additive can also be combined with ZSM-5 additives to increase LPG yield. Bottoms reduction of up to 25-30% is achievable using the additive. The separate particle approach is more effective than simply adding extra matrix to the base catalyst. In FCC catalyst, zeolite coking is initially much faster than matrix. The coke precursors formed in Y-Zeolite migrate onto the matrix, therefore prematurely deac - tivating matrix cracking activity. In BCA-105 particles, the rate of matrix coking is much slower, resulting in higher matrix activity and more bottoms cracking. Also, metal dehydrogenation reactions occur rela - tively quickly, but the metals must first be reduced in the riser. BCA-105 enables cracking reactions to occur before metals being reduced, having a neutral and, in some cases, decrease in dry gas yield. Generally, when adding matrix to the base catalyst, it tends to make more hydrogen and coke due to the nickel and vana - dium laydown on the base catalyst caused by the quick cracking reactions of the base catalyst Y-Zeolite. These metals then migrate to the base catalyst matrix. BCA- 105 does not have the same effect as it does not contain any Y-Zeolite. BCA-105 is an effective bottoms cracking additive that allows refiners flexibility without increasing coke or dry gas and impacting fluidisation. It is com - patible with all FCC unit designs and base catalyst technologies. A Rainer Rakoczy, TechnologyAdvisor Fuel, andMaximilian Dochnahl, Head of Modelling & On-site Technology, Clariant Catalysts Today’s cocktail of catalysts is composed to react to the requirements driven by the feed to the FCC unit. The product mix leaving the unit has reached capabilities to provide outstanding flexibility. Until today, the produced middle distillate fraction, namely light cycle oil (LCO), can reach density levels that are sometimes hard to process in distillate hydrotreater towards ULSD specifications, especially if FCC operation and catalyst selection is selected to produce predominantly olefins-rich off-gas, with naphtha fractions providing high knock resistance. With the current need for co- processing of biogenic triglycerides from used cooking oil, fats from sewage, or vegetable oils, there is an option to expand the capability of handling high-density LCO. In addition, with more and more focus on fuel to chemicals FCC unit and the right catalyst selection helps to optimise light olefins yield in combination with naphtha, which can be utilised in a steam cracker after appropriate hydroprocessing. Clariant and its partners offer tailored catalytic solutions for optimised product recovery and hydrogen management to follow these new challenges. A Corbett Senter, Regional Marketing Manager – Refining Catalysts, Europe, Middle East, & Africa, BASF, james. Refiners are constantly challenged to maximise refin -

ing margin by converting heavier feed to lighter val - ue-added molecules. FCC catalysts need to enable the FCC to have additional flexibility to further upgrade bottoms and overcome process constraints. This means a coke selective bottoms upgrading catalyst that max - imises transportation fuels, especially for the resid market. BASF is very active in developing new products that maximise bottoms upgrading in FCC units. We have seen multiple FCC trials of newer catalyst products, such as Boroflex, Fourte, and Luminate, which have improved bottoms upgrading compared to incum - bent catalysts. BASF’s latest FCC catalyst product for maximum bottoms upgrading, Altrium, is designed to maximise the destruction of bottoms to more valuable FCC products. The product incorporates our Advanced Innovative Matrix (AIM) and the proven Improved Zeolite-Y (IZY) technology. The key features include higher meso-macro porosity for larger molecule diffu - sivity, deeper conversion, and improved metal passiv - ation while having good attrition resistance to increase retention and reduce stack opacity and slurry fines. Commercial trials of Altrium have confirmed its ability to deliver better economic performance through coke selectivity and deeper resid bottoms conversion. By improving the gasoline and distillate yields, we help refiners increase profitability. With FCC catalyst, there is no ‘one size fits all’ approach to improving bottoms upgrading. Refiners need to talk with their catalyst pro - vider to determine which product best fits their objec - tives and constraints. A Steven van Vegten, Global Market Application Advisor , Albemarle, Bottoms upgrading capabilities are mainly determined by the catalyst’s accessibility, matrix activity level, and low coke selectivity. Two technological advances by Albemarle, Denali and RiFT, help refiners either minimise fuel oil production or seek additional bottoms upgrading capabilities, as we recognise feedstocks are becoming more difficult and grow in diversity. Accessibility measures the ease of diffusion of high molecular weight feedstock to diffuse into the catalyst particle, reach active sites, and subsequently be cracked to more valuable products. Albemarle’s high accessi - bility catalyst technology delivers unhindered access to active sites, of which the active matrix plays a cru - cial role in bottoms upgrading. Albemarle’s latest RiFT matrix delivers enriched PoSD and supplementary acid sites, increasing total catalyst acidity by up to 20%, pre - senting favourable implications for bottoms cracking and hydrogen transfer. Our next-generation USY zeolite technology, ZT-600, is a cutting-edge zeolite technology that provides multiple benefits and is employed in our Denali cat - alysts. One benefit is higher intrinsic zeolitic stability and retention, which provides a tool for extricating and controlling activity versus hydrogen transfer. In addition, acid sites have been optimised with less non-framework alumina for fewer undesired reactions, particularly lower coke and gas. Lastly, more mesopo -

8 Catalysis 2022

Powered by